The Biblical Doctrine of Hell

The Cur­rent Con­tro­ver­sy: For most of 2000 years of church his­to­ry men of faith have held to the teach­ing of the eter­nal pun­ish­ment of the wicked. Cur­rent­ly, among evan­gel­i­cal Chris­tians, some schol­ars of renown are espous­ing the posi­tion known as anni­hi­la­tion­ism. This is the belief that the wicked ulti­mate­ly cease to exist, i.e. pun­ish­ment is not eter­nal. These men are Clark Pin­nock, John R. Stott, Phillip E. Hugh­es, and John Wen­ham. This view is also held by Sev­enth Day Adven­tists, Jeho­vah’s Wit­ness­es, and The World-wide Church of God (Arm­strongism).

B. Main Ques­tions asso­ci­at­ed with the teach­ing of Eter­nal Pun­ish­ment, i.e. Hell:

1. Is hell a real­i­ty? Can edu­cat­ed peo­ple in this day and age real­ly believe in a lit­er­al hell?

2. How can a lov­ing God con­fine peo­ple to such pun­ish­ment?




The Biblical Flood: New Thoughts, New Questions

I. Intro­duc­tion (Note: This Brief­ing Paper updates and sup­ple­ments #27: Facts About the Flood)

A flood of great pro­por­tions is described in Gen­e­sis 6 – 9. The text nev­er indi­cates that it was any­thing oth­er than?a his­tor­i­cal event. The Flood, and, or Noah, the builder of the Ark, are men­tioned 7 more times in the OT.?These pas­sages are Gen.10:1,32; 11:10; I Chron. 1:3; Isa. 54:9; and Ezek.14:14,20. The NT also assumes that?a great del­uge came on the earth as the result of God?s judg­ment: See Matt. 24:37 – 39; Lk. 3:36; 17:27; Heb.?11:7; I Pet. 3:18 – 21, and II Pet. 2:5; 3:3 – 7. ( See ?Noah and the Flood in Jew­ish, Chris­t­ian and Mus­lim
Tra­di­tion,? in the Bib­li­cal Archae­ol­o­gist, Dec. 1984.)

The Pseude­pigrapha, a cor­pus of extra-bib­li­cal lit­er­a­ture writ­ten approx­i­mate­ly from the Sec­ond Cen­tu­ry B.C. to?the Sec­ond Cen­tu­ry A.D., like­wise con­tains many ref­er­ences to a cat­a­stroph­ic Flood. It is found most?prominently in the books of I Enoch, Jubilees, and the Gen­e­sis Apoc­ryphon.

Jose­phus, a very impor­tant his­to­ri­an of the First Cen­tu­ry, expounds on the Flood as he recounts Jew­ish history?in his work Antiq­ui­ties of the Jews. He basi­cal­ly recounts the Bib­li­cal sto­ry, but adds that the Flood began 2656?years after Adam. Jose­phus, who had access to all the libraries of Rome, quotes from many pagan sources?(some which are no longer avail­able) who also wrote about a his­tor­i­cal Flood.

To read the entire article,?download the pdf here.